Basics Of Ayurveda – Samanya or Generalization And Differentiation or Vishesha In Ayurveda
The Longevity chapter of ayurveda texbook Charaka Samhita explains about six substances in whole world according to Ayurveda and Yoga philosophy. ‘Samanya’ or Generalization or Commonness is one and ‘Vishesha’ or differentiation or difference is another one that are explained in this article. The knowledge of these substances are essential and basic to learn ayurvedic principles and these are taught in a separate subject in the first year of ayurvedic medicine students.
Health & Longevity Knowledge
“This is a known truth that the sameness of matter, qualities and activities is the causative agent behind the increase or growth. The difference of matter, qualities and activities is the causative agent behind decrease or reduction. The sameness and difference have relationship and interact inside body every time.”
“The generalization stands for equality, sameness and unity. Inequality or difference stands for differentiation. The generalization or sameness has comparable features and differentiation has features in contrast.” (Charaka Samhita, Sutra Section, Ch. 1/44-45, Longevity)
Explained: It has been mentioned earlier that there are six basic substances in Ayurveda and Yoga philosophy. They are – Generalization, Differentiation, Matter, Qualities, Activity, Relationships.
Now let us consider the first two. Generalization is not the duplicate copy. It stands for resembling features. These features can be in material, qualities or properties or characteristics and action or activities or in all the three.
The chalk and milk are general in color that is a property but different in matter and activity. Terminalia chebula and Senna are same in purgative action but they are different in matter and other qualities.
These two substances – generalized and differentiated are considered for all consideration in medicine. In Pharmacology, the action of all the drugs are along four lines…
- Physical Action: The physical properties of drugs are responsible for action of drug or medicine. The commonly used physical properties are mass of drug, osmotic activity, radioactivity, radioopacity, adsorptive property etc.
- Chemical Action: The drug or medicine exerts effects along the lines of chemical equations. Chemical properties include effects based on acidification, alkalization, neutralization, oxidation, reduction, chelation etc.
- Through Enzymes: Most of the biological or chemical reactions occur under the catalytic (One whose presence catalyzes or hasten the metabolic reaction and Enzymes don’t participate themselves in chemical or metabolic reaction). Enzymes work in two directions – they can either stimulate the process or inhibit the process. An Enzyme can play one role in a particular process i.e. it can either inhibit or stimulate the process and never both.
- Through Receptors: Receptors are the large molecules on the surface or inside of cells that bind and interact with the drug. A receptor works through many chemicals that can be divided into following categories. Agonists are the chemicals that activate a receptor to produce some specific effect. Inverse agonist activate the receptor but produces the opposite effect to the agonist. Antagonist prevents the effect of agonist on a receptor and doesn’t have its own effect. Partial agonist activate the receptor to have some effect but opposes the effect of full agonist. Ligand is a molecule that attaches selectively to a particular receptor. This term signifies only the attachment with receptor without any suggestion for functional change or effect.
We can analyze the above mechanisms of a pharmacological drug and what we find is that all the different effects via various mechanisms ultimately boil down to two effects – it can either increase or decrease a particular biological activity in body.
Carcinogens are the substances or factors with the potency to cause cancerous change in normal tissues. And what is cancer? In cancer, the normal bodily or cellular processes are increased without check! Cells multiply at an excessively high rate and without control.
So all our pathological and physiological processes can be included in these two principles of Ayurveda as we cover all the biological processes in the body in two types of metabolic reactions – anabolic and catabolic changes.
Whenever we need to increase some matter or quality or activity, we will need something other that would share that matter or quality or activity or have it in common.
The same thing applies when we want to reduce something. Taking low fatty food stuff in diet and doing exercise are not common with obesity because obesity is fat accumulated already in greater than normal proportion.
High protein and fat diet will help the lean and thin to put up more weight. Protein and fat rich diet resemble in matter or quality or activity with flesh and fat in body. So these measures will help to gain weight.