Monday, May 27, 2019

Terminalia Arjuna

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Terminalia arjuna is alterative, astringent, cardiac stimulant, hemostatic, rejuvenative tonic and lithontriptic. It is also helpful in bilious affections. It is styptic, antidysenteric and febrifugal. It has great role in hypertension, IHD or ischemic heart disease, congestive cardiac failure.

Ayurvedic Classical Description Of Terminalia Arjuna

Vagbhata described it for the first time.

According to Bhava Prakash, It is cooling, kapha and pitta pacifying, cardiac restorative, helpful in wounds, Tuberculosis and poisoning; good for obesity and urinary disorders.

Chakradatta advised to take it by processing in milk for cardiac disorders alone or with Panchamula (Five roots) or with Bala. It would be helpful in cardiac disorders, indigestion, fever and bleeding disorders. He advises it in fractures with milk.

Traditional Uses Of Terminalia Arjuna

Terminalia Arjuna & The Three Humors:

It pacifies kapha with its astringent, light and dry qualities. It pacifies pitta with its cool properties.

Topical Application Of Terminalia Arjuna:

 Because of its astringent properties, it powder or decoction is good for application on wounds. It helps in their healing.

Terminalia Arjuna & Our Digestive System:

Its astringent nature make it useful in bleeding piles and diarrhea with blood. Bilious affections are relieved by this herb. It has general tonic effect in Cirrhosis of Liver.

T. Arjuna & Cardiovascular System:

It is cardio-tonic thus providing nutrition to heart muscles and strengthening them. It normalizes the disturbed rhythms of heart and also reduces the heart rate. This is found to be helpful in edema as well. It reduces the clotting tendency of blood. It reduces the stress and nervousness of the heart. It helps in reversing the hardening of the blood vessels.

T. Arjuna & Respiratory System:

It is found to be useful in cough (particularly sputum with haemoptysis) along with Vasa (Adhatoda vasica) leaves. So it could be used as adjuvant in tubercular cough. It can be used with sugar, rice water and equal quantity of red sandalwood in hemoptysis. This helps to stop the blood and heal the ulcer.

T. Arjuna & Urinary System:

 It is useful in urinary tract infections and reduces the burning micturition. Because of its diuretic action it was found to be helpful for renal or urinary bladder stones.

T. Arjuna & Sexual Health:

Spermatorrhea is relieved with the decoction of Arjuna bark and white sandal according to Sushruta. Harita also advised its decoction in gonorrhea. It relives the leucorrhea and excessive menstrual bleeding.

T. Arjuna For Skin Ailments:

Vagbhata advised it to be applied locally with honey for acne.

General Effects Of Terminalia Arjuna:

It can be given as the adjuvant in chronic fevers, particularly tuberculosis. On prolonged use it is good for obese persons, in chronic poisoning and general debility.

Terminalia Arjuna & Musculoskeletal System:

With milk it is given in fractures and contusions with excessive ecchymosis as it promotes the union of fractures.

Clinical Research Approved Effects Of Terminalia Arjuna

Terminalia Arjuna & Our Blood Pressure:

Drug dosage dependent reduction in blood pressure and heart rate is noticed. Intravenous injection of 70% alcoholic extract of T. arjuna caused dose dependent hypotension in anaesthetized dogs. Hypotension was supposed to be due to peripheral mechanisms. Symptomatic complaints of essential hypertension viz. giddiness, insomnia, lassitude, occipital headache and poor concentration ability were relieved by arjuna. Coagulation, bleeding and prothrombin time can be reduced by oral administration of an aqueous suspension of the bark powder.

Terminalia Arjuna Protecting Our Heart:

T. arjuna has preventive and protective role in cardiovascular disorders.

Terminalia Arjuna Effects On Blood Lipids & Cholesterol:

Hypolipidemic effects i.e. normalizing the increased lipids in blood is exerted by this medicinal herb. Increased triglycerides and cholesterol levels are normalized. It enhances the turnover cycle of LDL-cholesterol in Liver – by enhancing the synthesis of Apo-B or LDL apoprotein and by inhibiting the oxidation of LDL. Lowering of Beta-Lipoproteins-lipids and increase in HDL component of lipid profile results from suppression of cholesterol biosynthesis in Liver.

Terminalia Arjuna & Ischemic Heart Diseases Like Angina & Myocardial Infarction:

Its bark is anti-ischemic, cardiac protective and cardio-tonic. Efficacy of T. arjuna is established by a double blind, placebo controlled study in Chronic Stable Angina. Its bark extract in the dosage of 500 mg four times a day caused improvement in clinical and treadmill exercise parameters as compared to placebo. The benefits were found to be comparable with Isosorbide mononitrate (40 mg per day) and with good tolerance.  Digitalis or nitroglycerine  only strengthen and restores heart beat with no nutritive effect on the heart muscle itself.

T. arjuna protects the heart of rabbit against ischemic reperfusion injury. The role of anti-oxidant enzymes and heart shock proteins were explored. It prevents the oxidative stress, myocardial injury and hemodynamic effects induced by ischemic reperfusion injury. This study provides the scientific basis for its preventive role for IHD or ischemic heart disease.

In another study, arjuna was found to augment endogenous antioxidant compounds of rat heart and to prevent the myocardium from isoproterenol induced myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury.

Yet another napthanol glycoside from T. arjuna demonstrated antioxidant and nitric oxide inhibiting activities. Arjungenin was found to be the most active as direct free radical scavenger and inhibitor for the hypochlorous acid production. Its glycoside arjunetin was also 50% active. These again prove its cardioprotective role.

Thus it has proven prostaglandin enhancing and coronary risk modulating property. More than 6 million people are suffering from Angina in US. In the long term arjuna was found to be greatly effective without the nasty side effects and without loss of efficacy.

Terminalia Arjuna & Coenzyme Q10:

This Coenzyme Q10 is being prescribed to cardiac patients for preventing heart attacks. Its protective cardiovascular effect was due to its combined effects like hypolipidemic effect, drug dosage dependent reduction in heart rate and blood pressure.

Terminalia Arjuna As Antioxidant:

The bark powder of terminalia arjuna showed antioxidant action comparable with Vit. E. The extra benefit was the hypocholesterolemic effect.

Terminalia Arjuna & Congestive Cardiac Failure:

CCF also positively responded to this medicinal herb.

Terminalia Arjuna With Anti-Mutagenic Potential:

In the J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2001;20:9-14 documents a study that indicates its anti-mutagenic or anti-cancer potential and advised to explore it further. Arjuna has compounds that protect against DNA damage from toxins. A substance in Arjuna, causrinin, inhibits breast cancer cell growth. Casuarinin from the Bark of T. arjuna Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma MCF-7 Cells.

Tannins and triterpenes (The Phenolic fractions) in T. arjuna have been found to show antigenotoxic or antimutagenic effects.

Terminalia Arjuna Reversing The Damage By Chronic Smoking:

Smoking causes endothelial dysfunction, an early event of Atherosclerosis. It is mediated through mainly oxidative stress process. Two weeks of therapy with this medicinal herb leads to reversal of impaired function in endothelium of smokers.

Use Terminalia arjuna For:

  1. Hypertension & Tachycardia where heart beat is increased. Use it as adjuvant or alternative medicine in consultation with qualified herbalist.
  2. For increased level of cholesterol in blood – Hypercholesterolemia.
  3. As a cardiac protective and supportive herbal supplement.
  4. Get informed by reading the various pages related to Terminalia arjuna.
  5. You can take two tablet twice or thrice a day or as suggested by some qualified herbalist. Each 550 mg tablet contains 500 mg of bark powder and 50 mg of bark extract (10:1).

Arjuna Ksira Paka

Welcome to Arjuna Kshira  Paka – Terminalia arjuna is a reputed heart friendly herb that has been in use for over 2500 BC. It is useful in hypertension, angina, Heart attacks, Hypercholesterolemia and Hyperlipidemia. 

Several of the modern researches have approved of its beneficial effects as anti hypertensive, anti-ischemic and cardioprotective herb. 

Due to its astringent taste and dry quality, it may cause some trivial problems like mild constipation, flatulence in some individuals. So Chakradatta described its use with milk. That is why this preparation is famous by the name of Arjuna-Kshira-paka as ‘kshiram’ means milk and ‘pakam’ means to boil in Sanskrit language. 

Herbal Dose For Terminalia arjuna:

Bark of terminalia arjuna, Four times milk, Sixteen times water i.e. for 10 gm of bark chips, take 40 ml of milk and 160 ml of water. Usually it is better in the dosage of 10-20 gm of bark chips. 

Boil it over the stove slowly and when the water is evaporated, put it through a sieve and drink the liquid. You can add some sugar to taste if you are not diabetic. The alternative approach could be the dipping the bark chips of terminalia arjuna in water a few hours before the boiling so that its ingredients might come to this Arjuna kshira paka herbal tea more easily. 

Benefits Of Arjuna Kshira Paka:

Terminalia arjuna is doubly useful in this way. Both of its astringent taste and dry quality are neutralized by adding it with milk. Plus the milk’s property to increase the lipids in blood is also neutralized. Plus the water soluble and fat soluble ingredients of terminalia arjuna bark are there in Arjuna kshira paka.  

On the contrary there are only water soluble ingredients alone in the decoction. So we can have both the terminalia arjuna as well as milk in a special cardio-friendly way

Personal Experiences With Some Modifications:

I advised it with some modification to some of the patients in India. And this works wonderfully. Some of the practical suggestions are.

  1. By Adding Saunfa or Fennel : 5-10 gm of fennel could be added to some persons who complain of flatulence even after taking Arjuna kshira paka.
  2. By Adding Ajowan – 3-5 gm of Ajowan also works for flatulence either alone or with 3-5 gm of fennel in combination.
  3. By Adding Draksha or Dried Grape : It is especially good for persons who are suffering from heart disorders with Vata or nervous dominance or Pitta dominant tendency and those who are weak or underweight or emaciated. This will be a good and mild nutritive, energizing the person and easy to stomach and intestine.

So It is advisable from the Ayurveda point of view to add some herbal or food supplements as is required for the benefit of the person. Get the full benefits of terminalia arjuna and prevent the cardiac diseases. Have a healthy heart.

Terminalia Arjuna herbal Profile

This cardio-friendly, cardiac tonic and cardiac stimulant, anti-hypertensive, anti-ischemic heart is useful in a variety of heart diseases. Find the different names, medicinal parts, constituents, ayurvedic qualities, herbal formulations and other general information about this ayurvedic herb.

English Name:

  • Arjuna, Arjuna myrobalan, White Marudah, White Murdh

Latin And Scientific Name:

  • Terminalia arjuna Wight & Arn., Pentaptera glabra Roxb. ex DC., Pentaptera angustifolia, Pentaptera arjuna Roxb.

Family Name:

 Combretaceae.

Sanskrit Name:

  • Dhaval – because of its whitish or grey bark.
  • Kakubha – due to its being a large tree.
  • Indradu – due to its covering a large area.
  • Viravriksha – due to its hard woody nature.
  • Nadisarja – because it is commonly found by the side of rivers and water bodies.
  • Karavirak
  • Dhanvi

Hindi Name:

Arjan, Arjun, Arjuna,  Kahua, Kahu, Koha

Gujarati Name:

Arjun-Sadada, Sadado

Canarese:

 Bili-Holo-Nir-Tora, Matti, Maddi

Marathi:

 Arjun Sadada, Sadura

Oriya:

Arjun, Sahajo

Assamese:

Orjun

Punjabi:

Arjuna

Bengali:

Arjun, Arjhan

Kannada:

Maddi, Tora matti

Tamil:

Marutham pattai, Vellamatta, Vellamatta Marutae

Telagu:

Tellamaddi, Yerra maddi

Sinhalese:

Kumbuk

Nepalese:

 Kaahu

Chinese:

 三果木   San guo mu  (Taiwan)

German:

   Echte Myrobalane

Russian:

Терминалия арджуна, Терминалия аржуна

Medicinal Parts Of Terminalia arjuna:

Bark is used for medicinal purposes.

Dosage And Different Forms In Which It Is Used:

  • Powder – 3-6 gm two or three times a day with milk or water.
  • Extracted Juice – 10-20 ml two or three times a day with sugar or honey or milk.
  • Decoction – 20-40 ml two times a day in the concentration of 1:2 (10 gm of bark in 20 ml of water)
  • Ksira Paka or Processed in Milk – 5-20 gm two times a day.
  • Extract – Upto 500 mg of 10:1 extract four times a day.

Ayurvedic Classification:

  • According To Charaka – Astringent group, Anti-Udarda group
  • According To Sushruta – Nyagrodhadi group, Salasaradi group

Ayurvedic Properties:

  • Qualities : Light, dry
  • Taste : Astringent
  • Vipaka : Pungent
  • Virya or Active principle : Cooling
  • Specific Effect : Cardiac

Bio-Chemical Constituents:

  • ELEMENTS : Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc and Copper
  • FLAVONOIDS :  Arjunone, Arjunolone, Luteolin are the natural antioxidants.
  • Gallic Acid
  • Ellagic Acid, Oleanolinic Acid
  • OPCs or Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins
  • Phytosterols (beta-sitosterol)
  • TRITERPENOID SAPONINS : Arjunolic Acid, Arjunic Acid, Arjungenin, Arjunglycosides,
  • TRITERPENOID GLYCOSIDES OR Arjuna Glycosides – Arjunine, Arjunetein, Arjunetosides
  • Co enzyme Q10
  • Friedlin, Cerasidin
  • Tannin

Ayurvedic And Herbal Formulations:

  1. Kakubhadi powder
  2. Arjunaristam
  3. Arjuna Ghritam
  4. Arjuna Ksira Paka
  5. Aravindasava
  6. Devadarvyaristam

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Arjun
As a native Indian and an Ayurvedic holistic healer, Arjun writes in the lane of herbal healing and home remedies. Certification: BAMS (Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine & Surgery With Modern Medicine).

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